Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools are an integral part of day-to-day human activities. However, evidence of how ICT tools are used to engage individuals with diabetes to prevent diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is limited. This review aims to summarize the evidence on ICT tools used in DFU prevention programs and associated outcomes.
We conducted a scoping review of the literature based on the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework. Four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) were searched from 1960 to 2020 using keywords. Two reviewers independently screened the articles and performed data extraction and summarization.
Seventeen out of 312 articles screened met the inclusion criteria and included in the final analysis. Eleven ICT tools were utilized in four types of intervention: patient education, multidimensional foot health programs, remote temperature monitoring, and pressure-monitoring insole systems. The identified ICT tools were used for presenting educational information, follow-up reinforcement of education, counselling, self-monitoring, remote patient monitoring by healthcare professionals, self-care reminders, problem-solving, motivation, and communication. In 59% of the studies, the interventions led to a significant reduction in recurrence of DFUs, improvement in self-care behaviour and cognition, and reduction of risk factors.
The review provided an insight into a range of ICT tools used in DFUs prevention programs. The finding suggests that interventions involving one or more ICT tools are often effective in improving diabetic foot care-related outcomes. Therefore, DFUs prevention programs should include ICT tools as one of its components.