Gut Microbiota and Complications of Type-2 Diabetes

Gut Microbiota and Complications of Type-2 Diabetes

The gut microbiota has been linked to the emergence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and the onset of type 2 diabetes through decreased glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious health consequences such as impaired kidney function, blindness, stroke, myocardial infarction and lower limb amputation. Despite a variety of treatments currently available, cases of diabetes and resulting complications are on the rise. One promising new approach to diabetes focuses on modulating the gut microbiota with probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and fecal microbial transplantation. Differences in gut microbiota composition have been observed in preclinical animal models as well as patients with type 2 diabetes and complications such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease and peripheral artery disease compared to healthy controls. Severity of gut microbiota dysbiosis was associated with disease severity and restoration with probiotic administration in animal models and human patients has been associated with improvement of symptoms and disease progression. Characterizing the gut microbiota dysbiosis in different diseases and determining a causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease can be beneficial in formulating therapeutic interventions for type 2 diabetes and associated complications. In this review, we present the most important findings regarding the role of the gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes and chronic complications as well as their underlying mechanisms. View Full-Text

by Camelia Oana Iatcu 1,2,Aimee Steen 3 andMihai Covasa 1,3,*1College of Medicine and Biological Sciences, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, 720229 Suceava, Romania2College of Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA

Schematic view of the link between gut microbiota, diabetes and chronic complications of diabetes. The left
 side panel depicts chronic micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes, and associated changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. Poorly controlled diabetes leads to chronic complications over time, and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota seems to promote the onset and progression of these complications. The right
 panel depicts the potential effects of restoring gut microbiota eubiosis in ameliorating, preventing or delaying the onset of chronic complications of diabetes, via probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics or by fecal microbiota transplantation. ↑, increase; ↓, decrease.

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